Introduction of Dry Convective adjustment parameterization
GCMs generally adjust unstable vertical structure originated by numerical computing to stable, by parameterization of dry shallow convection process. This parameterization is for considering transportations of heat and constituents by parameterizing convective and turbulent mixing at sub-grid scale. It is checked by every time step whether environmental lapse rate exceeds dry adiabatic lapse rate. If a layer is unstable, it is adjusted to neutral or a little stable state; total potential energy should be conserved. By dry convection heat is transported upper layer until environmental lapse rate doesn¡¯t exceed dry adiabatic lapse rate. In a physical point of view, potential energy is converted to kinetic energy, and then finally vanishes into thermal energy. This process is computed iteration to adjust unstable layers be found continuously with adjacent layers at each grid point.